Michael F. Carey, Ph.D.

Laboratory Address:
BSRB 357

Work Address:
CAMPUS - 173722
615 Charles E. Young Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90095

Professor and Vice Chair, Biological Chemistry
Director, JCCC Gene Regulation Program Area
Research Interests
One of the central themes to emerge in molecular biology over the last decade is that specific gene expression patterns are controlled by massive molecular machines termed transcription complexes. These complexes assemble over the regulatory region of a gene and control the specificity and activity of transcription. The complexes contain activators, co-activators and general transcription factors. Activators bind cooperatively to promoters and enhancers to assemble into nucleoprotein complexes called enhanceosomes. The enhanceosome recruits co-activators that then interact with general factors such as RNA polymerase, which carry out the catalytic process of transcription initiation and elongation. We are particlarly interested in a co-activator complex termed Mediator and how it functions in an in vitro system on chromatin templates. We have identified interactions between mediator and chromatin remodeling factors and between mediator and general transcription factors. We believe the mediator controls the transition from chromatin remodeling to transcription complex assembly. Our approach is to use purified proteins, biochemical methods and genome wide approaches involving Next Generation Sequencing to study various aspects of the mechanism of enhanceosome assembly, co-activator recruitment and chromatin remodeling. Our system is based on derivatives of the yeast transcriptional activator GAL4 (i.e., GAL4-VP16). GAL4 is a model system where the activators and templates were constructed to experimentally manipulate various parameters important for activated transcription.

Dr. Carey studies biochemical and genomic mechanisms of gene activation and silencing. In 1990, Dr. Carey established biochemical systems for studying gene regulation based on a model transcriptional activator termed GAL4-VP16. Using that system, Dr. Carey established a mechanism by which genes are controlled synergistically by upstream activators. Synergy is a key principle in gene regulation and underlies the combinatorial control of gene transcription. Throughout the 1990s, Dr. Carey's lab showed that synergy is first manifested during assembly of transcription preinitiation complexes (PICs). His lab identified assembly of a co-activator complex, termed DAMed, as the key step influenced by activators. Dr. Carey has been studying the biochemistry of transcription on chromatin templates including how Pol II traverses a nucleosome, how a protein termed p300 coordinates chromatin modification with assembly of the DAMed complex and then the PIC, and how two silencing proteins termed HP1 and PRC1 silence transcription by selectively affecting key components of the DAMed complex. Dr. Carey's recent work has focused on genomics including how enhancers interact with promoters and their localization within the 3D genome. Dr. Carey served as Director of the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Gene Regulation Program from 1999-2005 and 2011-present. Dr. Carey initiated the Cold Spring Harbor Eukaryotic Gene Expression Course with his UCLA colleague, Dr. Steven Smale, and served as course director in 1997. Drs. Carey and Smale wrote a 650-page textbook titled "Transcriptional Regulation in Eukaryotes; Concepts, Strategies and Techniques." The first edition was published by CSHL Press in 2000 and the second edition was published in 2009. Dr. Carey was a scientific cofounder of Agensys, a biotechnology company focused on prostate cancer therapy. Dr. Carey is on numerous committees at UCLA that oversee undergraduate and graduate research education.


A selected list of publications:

Xue Yong, Pradhan Suman K, Sun Fei, Chronis Constantinos, Tran Nancy, Su Trent, Van Christopher, Vashisht Ajay, Wohlschlegel James, Peterson Craig L, Timmers H T Marc, Kurdistani Siavash K, Carey Michael F   Mot1, Ino80C, and NC2 Function Coordinately to Regulate Pervasive Transcription in Yeast and Mammals Molecular Cell, 2017; 67(4): 594-607.e4.
Xue Yong, Schmollinger Stefan, Attar Narsis, Campos Oscar, Vogelauer Maria, Carey Michael F, Merchant Sabeeha S, Kurdistani Siavash K   Endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria junction is required for iron homeostasis The Journal of biological chemistry, 2017; .
Huang Chengyang, Su Trent, Xue Yong, Cheng Chen, Lay Fides D, McKee Robin A, Li Meiyang, Vashisht Ajay, Wohlschlegel James, Novitch Bennett G, Plath Kathrin, Kurdistani Siavash K, Carey Michael   Cbx3 maintains lineage specificity during neural differentiation Genes & development, 2017; 31(3): 241-246.
Pradhan Suman K, Su Trent, Yen Linda, Jacquet Karine, Huang Chengyang, Côté Jacques, Kurdistani Siavash K, Carey Michael F   EP400 Deposits H3.3 into Promoters and Enhancers during Gene Activation Molecular cell, 2016; 61(1): 27-38.
Pradhan Suman K, Xue Yong, Carey Michael F   Fragile Nucleosomes Influence Pol II Promoter Function Molecular cell, 2015; 60(3): 342-3.
Xue Yong, Van Christopher, Pradhan Suman K, Su Trent, Gehrke Jason, Kuryan Benjamin G, Kitada Tasuku, Vashisht Ajay, Tran Nancy, Wohlschlegel James, Peterson Craig L, Kurdistani Siavash K, Carey Michael F   The Ino80 complex prevents invasion of euchromatin into silent chromatin Genes & development, 2015; 29(4): 350-5.
Sridharan Rupa, Gonzales-Cope Michelle, Chronis Constantinos, Bonora Giancarlo, McKee Robin, Huang Chengyang, Patel Sanjeet, Lopez David, Mishra Nilamadhab, Pellegrini Matteo, Carey Michael, Garcia Benjamin A, Plath Kathrin   Proteomic and genomic approaches reveal critical functions of H3K9 methylation and heterochromatin protein-1γ in reprogramming to pluripotency Nature cell biology, 2013; 15(7): 872-82.
Kitada Tasuku, Kuryan Benjamin G, Tran Nancy Nga Huynh, Song Chunying, Xue Yong, Carey Michael, Grunstein Michael   Mechanism for epigenetic variegation of gene expression at yeast telomeric heterochromatin Genes & development, 2012; 26(21): 2443-55.
Chen Xiao-Fen, Lehmann Lynn, Lin Justin J, Vashisht Ajay, Schmidt Ryan, Ferrari Roberto, Huang Chengyang, McKee Robin, Mosley Amber, Plath Kathrin, Kurdistani Siavash K, Wohlschlegel James, Carey Michael   Mediator and SAGA have distinct roles in Pol II preinitiation complex assembly and function Cell reports, 2012; 2(5): 1061-7.
Lehmann Lynn, Ferrari Roberto, Vashisht Ajay A, Wohlschlegel James A, Kurdistani Siavash K, Carey Michael   Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) disassembles RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes The Journal of biological chemistry, 2012; 287(43): 35784-94.
Carey Michael   PICking apart Pol II initiation Nature structural & molecular biology, 2012; 19(8): 737-8.
Yu Yongxin, Song Chunying, Zhang Qiongyi, DiMaggio Peter A, Garcia Benjamin A, York Autumn, Carey Michael F, Grunstein Michael   Histone H3 lysine 56 methylation regulates DNA replication through its interaction with PCNA Molecular cell, 2012; 46(1): 7-17.
Kuryan Benjamin G, Kim Jessica, Tran Nancy Nga H, Lombardo Sarah R, Venkatesh Swaminathan, Workman Jerry L, Carey Michael   Histone density is maintained during transcription mediated by the chromatin remodeler RSC and histone chaperone NAP1 in vitro Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012; 109(6): 1931-6.
Lin Justin J, Carey Michael   In vitro transcription and immobilized template analysis of preinitiation complexes Current protocols in molecular biology / edited by Frederick M. Ausubel ... [et al.], 2012; Chapter 12(1): Unit 12.14..
Chen Xiao-Fen, Kuryan Benjamin, Kitada Tasuku, Tran Nancy, Li Jing-Yu, Kurdistani Siavash, Grunstein Michael, Li Bing, Carey Michael   The Rpd3 core complex is a chromatin stabilization module Current biology : CB, 2012; 22(1): 56-63.
Lin Justin J, Lehmann Lynn W, Bonora Giancarlo, Sridharan Rupa, Vashisht Ajay A, Tran Nancy, Plath Kathrin, Wohlschlegel James A, Carey Michael   Mediator coordinates PIC assembly with recruitment of CHD1 Genes & development, 2011; 25(20): 2198-209.
Carey Michael F, Peterson Craig L, Smale Stephen T   Magnesium-agarose electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) of transcription factor IID binding to DNA Cold Spring Harbor protocols, 2010; 2010(11): pdb.prot5514.
Ramirez-Carrozzi Vladimir R, Braas Daniel, Bhatt Dev M, Cheng Christine S, Hong Christine, Doty Kevin R, Black Joshua C, Hoffmann Alexander, Carey Michael, Smale Stephen T   A unifying model for the selective regulation of inducible transcription by CpG islands and nucleosome remodeling Cell, 2009; 138(1): 114-28.
Huyn Steven T, Burton Jeremy B, Sato Makoto, Carey Michael, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Wu Lily   A potent, imaging adenoviral vector driven by the cancer-selective mucin-1 promoter that targets breast cancer metastasis Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 2009; 15(9): 3126-34.
Black Joshua C, Mosley Amber, Kitada Tasuku, Washburn Michael, Carey Michael   The SIRT2 deacetylase regulates autoacetylation of p300 Molecular cell, 2008; 32(3): 449-55.
Smallwood Andrea, Black Joshua C, Tanese Naoko, Pradhan Sriharsa, Carey Michael   HP1-mediated silencing targets Pol II coactivator complexes Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol, 2008; 15(3): 318-20.
Li, B. Gogol, M. Carey, M. Pattenden, S. G. Seidel, C. Workman, J. L.   Infrequently transcribed long genes depend on the Set2/Rpd3S pathway for accurate transcription Genes Dev, 2007; 21(11): 1422-30.
Li, B. Gogol, M. Carey, M. Lee, D. Seidel, C. Workman, J. L.   Combined action of PHD and chromo domains directs the Rpd3S HDAC to transcribed chromatin Science, 2007; 316(5827): 1050-4.
Smallwood, A. Esteve, P. O. Pradhan, S. Carey, M.   Functional cooperation between HP1 and DNMT1 mediates gene silencing Genes Dev, 2007; 21(10): 1169-78.
Smallwood Andrea, Esteve Pierre-Olivier, Pradhan Sriharsa, Carey Michael   Functional cooperation between HP1 and DNMT1 mediates gene silencing Genes Dev, 2007; 21(10): 1169-78.
Li, B. Carey, M. Workman, J. L.   The role of chromatin during transcription Cell, 2007; 128(4): 707-19.
Chin Hang Gyeong, Est����ve Pierre-Olivier, Pradhan Mihika, Benner Jack, Patnaik Debasis, Carey Michael F, Pradhan Sriharsa   Automethylation of G9a and its implication in wider substrate specificity and HP1 binding Nucleic Acids Res, 2007; 35(21): 7313-23.
Li Bing, Carey Michael, Workman Jerry L   The role of chromatin during transcription Cell, 2007; 128(4): 707-19.
Esteve, P. O. Chin, H. G. Smallwood, A. Feehery, G. R. Gangisetty, O. Karpf, A. R. Carey, M. F. Pradhan, S.   Direct interaction between DNMT1 and G9a coordinates DNA and histone methylation during replication Genes Dev, 2006; 20(22): 3089-103.
Ilagan, R. Pottratz, J. Le, K. Zhang, L. Wong, S. G. Ayala, R. Iyer, M. Wu, L. Gambhir, S. S. Carey, M.   Imaging mitogen-activated protein kinase function in xenograft models of prostate cancer Cancer Res, 2006; 66(22): 10778-85.
Carey, M. Li, B. Workman, J. L.   RSC exploits histone acetylation to abrogate the nucleosomal block to RNA polymerase II elongation Mol Cell, 2006; 24(3): 481-7.
Ilagan Romyla, Pottratz Jill, Le Kim, Zhang Liqun, Wong Steven G, Ayala Raul, Iyer Meera, Wu Lily, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Carey Michael   Imaging mitogen-activated protein kinase function in xenograft models of prostate cancer Cancer Res, 2006; 66(22): 10778-85.
Carey Michael, Li Bing, Workman Jerry L   RSC exploits histone acetylation to abrogate the nucleosomal block to RNA polymerase II elongation Mol. Cell, 2006; 24(3): 481-7.
Black, J. C. Choi, J. E. Lombardo, S. R. Carey, M.   A mechanism for coordinating chromatin modification and preinitiation complex assembly Mol Cell, 2006; 23(6): 809-18.
Black Joshua C, Choi Janet E, Lombardo Sarah R, Carey Michael   A mechanism for coordinating chromatin modification and preinitiation complex assembly Mol. Cell, 2006; 23(6): 809-18.
Kozeracki Carol A, Carey Michael F, Colicelli John, Levis-Fitzgerald Marc, Grossel Martha   An intensive primary-literature-based teaching program directly benefits undergraduate science majors and facilitates their transition to doctoral programs Physiol. Genomics, 2006; 5(4): 340-7.
Wang Yanling, Iyer Meera, Annala Alexander, Wu Lily, Carey Michael, Gambhir Sanjiv S   Noninvasive indirect imaging of vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression using bioluminescence imaging in living transgenic mice Physiol. Genomics, 2006; 24(2): 173-80.
Ilagan Romyla, Zhang Liquin Joann, Pottratz Jill, Le Kim, Salas Sussan, Iyer Meera, Wu Lily, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Carey Michael   Imaging androgen receptor function during flutamide treatment in the LAPC9 xenograft model Mol. Cancer Ther, 2005; 4(11): 1662-9.
Johnson Mai, Sato Makoto, Burton Jeremy, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Carey Michael, Wu Lily   Micro-PET/CT monitoring of herpes thymidine kinase suicide gene therapy in a prostate cancer xenograft: the advantage of a cell-specific transcriptional targeting approach Metab. Clin. Exp, 2005; 4(4): 463-72.
Ilagan, R. Zhang, L. J. Pottratz, J. Le, K. Salas, S. Iyer, M. Wu, L. Gambhir, S. S. Carey, M.   Imaging androgen receptor function during flutamide treatment in the LAPC9 xenograft model Mol Cancer Ther, 2005; 4(11): 1662-9.
Sato Makoto, Johnson Mai, Zhang Liqun, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Carey Michael, Wu Lily   Functionality of androgen receptor-based gene expression imaging in hormone refractory prostate cancer Clin. Cancer Res, 2005; 11(10): 3743-9.
Carey, M.   Chromatin marks and machines, the missing nucleosome is a theme: gene regulation up and downstream Mol Cell, 2005; 17(3): 323-30.
Iyer Meera, Salazar Felix B, Lewis Xiaoman, Zhang Liqun, Carey Michael, Wu Lily, Gambhir Sanjiv S   Noninvasive imaging of enhanced prostate-specific gene expression using a two-step transcriptional amplification-based lentivirus vector Mol. Ther, 2004; 10(3): 545-52.
Johnson, K. M. Wang, J. Smallwood, A. Carey, M.   The immobilized template assay for measuring cooperativity in eukaryotic transcription complex assembly Methods Enzymol, 2004; 380: 207-19.
Bourbon Henri-Marc, Aguilera Andres, Ansari Aseem Z, Asturias Francisco J, Berk Arnold J, Bjorklund Stefan, Blackwell T Keith, Borggrefe Tilman, Carey Michael, Carlson Marian, Conaway Joan W, Conaway Ronald C, Emmons Scott W, Fondell Joseph D, Freedman Leonard P, Fukasawa Toshio, Gustafsson Claes M, Han Min, He Xi, Herman Paul K, Hinnebusch Alan G, Holmberg Steen, Holstege Frank C, Jaehning Judith A, Kim Young-Joon, Kuras Laurent, Leutz Achim, Lis John T, Meisterernest Michael, Naar Anders M, Nasmyth Kim, Parvin Jeffrey D, Ptashne Mark, Reinberg Danny, Ronne Hans, Sadowski Ivan, Sakurai Hiroshi, Sipiczki Matthias, Sternberg Paul W, Stillman David J, Strich Randy, Struhl Kevin, Svejstrup Jasper Q, Tuck Simon, Winston Fred, Roeder Robert G, Kornberg Roger D   A unified nomenclature for protein subunits of mediator complexes linking transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II Mol. Cell, 2004; 14(5): 553-7.
Johnson Kristina M, Wang Jin, Smallwood Andrea, Carey Michael   The immobilized template assay for measuring cooperativity in eukaryotic transcription complex assembly Meth. Enzymol, 2004; 380(1): 207-19.
Zhang, L. Johnson, M. Le, K. H. Sato, M. Ilagan, R. Iyer, M. Gambhir, S. S. Wu, L. Carey, M.   Interrogating androgen receptor function in recurrent prostate cancer Cancer Res, 2003; 63(15): 4552-60.
Zhang Liqun, Johnson Mai, Le Kim H, Sato Makoto, Ilagan Romyla, Iyer Meera, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Wu Lily, Carey Michael   Interrogating androgen receptor function in recurrent prostate cancer Cancer Res, 2003; 63(15): 4552-60.
Johnson, K. M. Carey, M.   Assembly of a mediator/TFIID/TFIIA complex bypasses the need for an activator Curr Biol, 2003; 13(9): 772-7.
Johnson Kristina M, Carey Michael   Assembly of a mediator/TFIID/TFIIA complex bypasses the need for an activator Curr. Biol, 2003; 13(9): 772-7.
Johnson, K. M. Wang, J. Smallwood, A. Arayata, C. Carey, M.   TFIID and human mediator coactivator complexes assemble cooperatively on promoter DNA Genes Dev, 2002; 16(14): 1852-63.
Zhang, L. Adams, J. Y. Billick, E. Ilagan, R. Iyer, M. Le, K. Smallwood, A. Gambhir, S. S. Carey, M. Wu, L.   Molecular engineering of a two-step transcription amplification (TSTA) system for transgene delivery in prostate cancer Mol Ther, 2002; 5(3): 223-32.
Johnson, K. M. Mitsouras, K. Carey, M.   Eukaryotic transcription: the core of eukaryotic gene activation Curr Biol, 2001; 11(13): R510-3.
Wu, L. Matherly, J. Smallwood, A. Adams, J. Y. Billick, E. Belldegrun, A. Carey, M.   Chimeric PSA enhancers exhibit augmented activity in prostate cancer gene therapy vectors Gene Ther, 2001; 8(18): 1416-26.
Ellwood, K. Huang, W. Johnson, R. Carey, M.   Multiple layers of cooperativity regulate enhanceosome-responsive RNA polymerase II transcription complex assembly Mol Cell Biol, 1999; 19(4): 2613-23.
Wang, J. Ellwood, K. Lehman, A. Carey, M. F. She, Z. S.   A mathematical model for synergistic eukaryotic gene activation J Mol Biol, 1999; 286(2): 315-25.
Ellwood, K. Chi, T. Huang, W. Mitsouras, K. Carey, M.   Cooperative assembly of RNA polymerase II transcription complexes Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 1998; 63: 253-61.
Hori, R. Carey, M.   Transcription: TRF walks the walk but can it talk the talk? Curr Biol, 1998; 8(4): R124-7.
Lehman, A. M. Ellwood, K. B. Middleton, B. E. Carey, M.   Compensatory energetic relationships between upstream activators and the RNA polymerase II general transcription machinery J Biol Chem, 1998; 273(2): 932-9.
Carey, M.   The enhanceosome and transcriptional synergy Cell, 1998; 92(1): 5-8.
Tantin, D. Kansal, A. Carey, M.   Recruitment of the putative transcription-repair coupling factor CSB/ERCC6 to RNA polymerase II elongation complexes Mol Cell Biol, 1997; 17(12): 6803-14.
Hori, R. Carey, M.   Protease footprinting analysis of ternary complex formation by human TFIIA J Biol Chem, 1997; 272(2): 1180-7.
Chi, T. Carey, M.   Assembly of the isomerized TFIIA--TFIID--TATA ternary complex is necessary and sufficient for gene activation Genes Dev, 1996; 10(20): 2540-50.
Tantin, D. Chi, T. Hori, R. Pyo, S. Carey, M.   Biochemical mechanism of transcriptional activation by GAL4-VP16 Methods Enzymol, 1996; 274: 133-49.
Chi, T. Lieberman, P. Ellwood, K. Carey, M.   A general mechanism for transcriptional synergy by eukaryotic activators Nature, 1995; 377(6546): 254-7.
Carey, M. F.   Transcriptional activation. A holistic view of the complex Curr Biol, 1995; 5(9): 1003-5.
Hori, R. Pyo, S. Carey, M.   Protease footprinting reveals a surface on transcription factor TFIIB that serves as an interface for activators and coactivators Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1995; 92(13): 6047-51.
Tantin, D. Carey, M.   A heteroduplex template circumvents the energetic requirement for ATP during activated transcription by RNA polymerase II J Biol Chem, 1994; 269(26): 17397-400.
Ohashi, Y. Brickman, J. M. Furman, E. Middleton, B. Carey, M.   Modulating the potency of an activator in a yeast in vitro transcription system Mol Cell Biol, 1994; 14(4): 2731-9.
Hori, R. Carey, M.   The role of activators in assembly of RNA polymerase II transcription complexes Curr Opin Genet Dev, 1994; 4(2): 236-44.
Carey, M.   Transcription. Simplifying the complex Nature, 1994; 368(6470): 402-3.
Chi, T. Carey, M.   The ZEBRA activation domain: modular organization and mechanism of action Mol Cell Biol, 1993; 13(11): 7045-55.
Emami, K. H. Carey, M.   A synergistic increase in potency of a multimerized VP16 transcriptional activation domain Embo J, 1992; 11(13): 5005-12.
Wang, W. Gralla, J. D. Carey, M.   The acidic activator GAL4-AH can stimulate polymerase II transcription by promoting assembly of a closed complex requiring TFIID and TFIIA Genes Dev, 1992; 6(9): 1716-27.
Carey, M. Kolman, J. Katz, D. A. Gradoville, L. Barberis, L. Miller, G.   Transcriptional synergy by the Epstein-Barr virus transactivator ZEBRA J Virol, 1992; 66(8): 4803-13.
Marmorstein, R. Carey, M. Ptashne, M. Harrison, S. C.   DNA recognition by GAL4: structure of a protein-DNA complex Nature, 1992; 356(6368): 408-14.
Wang, W. Carey, M. Gralla, J. D.   Polymerase II promoter activation: closed complex formation and ATP-driven start site opening Science, 1992; 255(5043): 450-3.
Carey, M.   Mechanistic advances in eukaryotic gene activation Curr Opin Cell Biol, 1991; 3(3): 452-60.
Carey, M. Lin, Y. S. Green, M. R. Ptashne, M.   A mechanism for synergistic activation of a mammalian gene by GAL4 derivatives Nature, 1990; 345(6273): 361-4.
Lin, Y. S. Carey, M. Ptashne, M. Green, M. R.   How different eukaryotic transcriptional activators can cooperate promiscuously Nature, 1990; 345(6273): 359-61.
Carey, M. Leatherwood, J. Ptashne, M.   A potent GAL4 derivative activates transcription at a distance in vitro Science, 1990; 247(4943): 710-2.
Carey, M. Kakidani, H. Leatherwood, J. Mostashari, F. Ptashne, M.   An amino-terminal fragment of GAL4 binds DNA as a dimer J Mol Biol, 1989; 209(3): 423-32.
Chasman, D. I. Leatherwood, J. Carey, M. Ptashne, M. Kornberg, R. D.   Activation of yeast polymerase II transcription by herpesvirus VP16 and GAL4 derivatives in vitro Mol Cell Biol, 1989; 9(11): 4746-9.
Schreck, R. Carey, M. F. Grummt, I.   Transcriptional enhancement by upstream activators is brought about by different molecular mechanisms for class I and II RNA polymerase genes Embo J, 1989; 8(10): 3011-7.
Lin, Y. S. Carey, M. F. Ptashne, M. Green, M. R.   GAL4 derivatives function alone and synergistically with mammalian activators in vitro Cell, 1988; 54(5): 659-64.
Horikoshi, M. Carey, M. F. Kakidani, H. Roeder, R. G.   Mechanism of action of a yeast activator: direct effect of GAL4 derivatives on mammalian TFIID-promoter interactions Cell, 1988; 54(5): 665-9.
Carey, M. F. Singh, K.   Enhanced B2 transcription in simian virus 40-transformed cells is mediated through the formation of RNA polymerase III transcription complexes on previously inactive genes Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1988; 85(19): 7059-63.
Carey, M. F. Singh, K. Botchan, M. Cozzarelli, N. R.   Induction of specific transcription by RNA polymerase III in transformed cells Mol Cell Biol, 1986; 6(9): 3068-76.
Carey, M. F. Gerrard, S. P. Cozzarelli, N. R.   Analysis of RNA polymerase III transcription complexes by gel filtration J Biol Chem, 1986; 261(9): 4309-17.