Samson A. Chow, Ph.D.

Laboratory Address:
23-133 CHS
Los Angeles, CA 90095

Office Address:
23-133B CHS
Los Angeles, CA 90095

Professor and Vice Chair, Molecular & Medical Pharmacology
Research Interests
Retroviruses are RNA viruses that replicate through a DNA intermediate. In humans, infection by retroviruses can lead to AIDS, lymphoma, and leukemia. My laboratory studies the molecular mechanism of integration of a viral genome into its host cell's DNA, a process essential for replication of HIV and other retroviruses. Retroviral integration is mediated by the viral protein integrase. We are currently focusing on understanding the biochemistry of integration, identifying integrase domains responsible for target site selection, imaging HIV infection and nuclear import of viral complexes, determining the functional interaction between integrase and reverse transcriptase during HIV replication, and developing novel retroviral vectors for delivering exogenous DNA into specific target sites. We are also studying a newly discovered human retrovirus, XMRV, and its role in tumorigenesis and other human diseases. Knowledge gained will be used for developing therapeutics for retroviral diseases and improving genetic engineering and therapy in mammalian cells.

A selected list of publications:

Briones Marisa S, Chow Samson A   A new functional role of HIV-1 integrase during uncoating of the viral core Immunologic research, 2010; 48(1-3): 14-26.
Rusmevichientong Alice, Chow Samson A   Biology and pathophysiology of the new human retrovirus XMRV and its association with human disease Immunologic research, 2010; 48(1-3): 27-39.
Kim Sanggu, Rusmevichientong Alice, Dong Beihua, Remenyi Roland, Silverman Robert H, Chow Samson A   Fidelity of target site duplication and sequence preference during integration of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus PloS one, 2010; 5(4): e10255.
Kim Sanggu, Kim Namshin, Presson Angela P, An Dong Sung, Mao Si Hua, Bonifacino Aylin C, Donahue Robert E, Chow Samson A, Chen Irvin S Y   High-throughput, sensitive quantification of repopulating hematopoietic stem cell clones Journal of virology, 2010; 84(22): 11771-80.
Briones Marisa S, Dobard Charles W, Chow Samson A   Role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase in uncoating of the viral core Journal of virology, 2010; 84(10): 5181-90.
Woodward Cora L, Chow Samson A   The nuclear pore complex: A new dynamic in HIV-1 replication Nucleus (Austin, Tex.), 2010; 1(1): 18-22.
Vatakis, D. N. Kim, S. Kim, N. Chow, S. A. Zack, J. A.   Human immunodeficiency virus integration efficiency and site selection in quiescent CD4+ T cells J. Virol, 2009; 83(12): 6222-6533.
Wilkinson, T. A. Januszyk, K. Phillips, M. L. Tekeste, S. S. Zhang, M. Miller, J. T. Le Grice, S. F. Clubb, R. T. Chow, S. A.   Identifying and Characterizing a Functional HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase-binding Site on Integrase J. Biol. Chem, 2009; 284(12): 7931-7939.
Woodward, C. L. Prakobwanakit, S. Mosessian, S. Chow, S. A.   Integrase interacts with nucleoporin NUP153 to mediate the nuclear import of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 J. Virol, 2009; 83(13): 6522-6533.
Su, K. Wang, D. Ye, J. Kim, Y. C. Chow, S. A.   Site-specific integration of retroviral DNA in human cells using fusion proteins consisting of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and the designed polydactyl zinc-finger protein E2C Methods, 2009; 47(4): 269-276.
Kim, S. Kim, N. Dong, B. Boren, D. Lee, S. A. Das Gupta, J. Gaughan, C. Klein, E. A. Lee, C. Silverman, R. H. Chow, S. A.   Integration site preference of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus, a new human retrovirus associated with prostate cancer, J. Virol, 2008; 82(20): 9964-9977.
Dong, B., Kim, S., Hong, S., Das Gupta, J., Malathi, K., Klein, E.A., Ganem, D., DeRisi, J., Chow, S.A. and Silverman, R.H.   An infectious retrovirus susceptible to an interferon antiviral pathway from human prostate tumors, Pro Natl Acad Sci USA, 2007; 104(5): 1655-1660.
Vatakis, D.N., Bristol, G., Wilkinson, T.A., Chow, S.A. and Zack, J.A.   Immediate activation to rescue efficient HIV replication in quiescent CD4+ T cells, J Virol , 2007; 81: 3574-3582.
Dobard, C.W., Briones, M. and Chow, S.A.   Molecular mechanisms by which HIV-1 integrase stimulates the early steps of reverse transcription, J Virol , 2007; 81: 10037-10046.
Kim, S. Kim, Y. Liang, T. Sinsheimer, J. S. Chow, S. A.   A high-throughput method for cloning and sequencing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration sites J Virol, 2006; 80(22): 11313-21.
Tan, W. Dong, Z. Wilkinson, T. A. Barbas, C. F., 3rd Chow, S. A.   Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 incorporated with fusion proteins consisting of integrase and the designed polydactyl zinc finger protein E2C can bias integration of viral DNA into a predetermined chromosomal region in human cells J Virol, 2006; 80(4): 1939-48.
Brooks, D. G. Cohen, M. D. Jamieson, B. D. Poon, B. Kitchen, S. G. Chow, S. A. Chen, I. S. Zack, J. A. Koka, P. S.   Rapid size dependent deletion of foreign gene sequences inserted into attenuated HIV-1 upon infection in vivo: implications for vaccine development Curr HIV Res, 2005; 3(4): 377-92.
Tan, W. Zhu, K. Segal, D. J. Barbas, C. F., 3rd Chow, S. A.   Fusion proteins consisting of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and the designed polydactyl zinc finger protein E2C direct integration of viral DNA into specific sites J Virol, 2004; 78(3): 1301-13.
Zhu, K. Dobard, C. Chow, S. A.   Requirement for integrase during reverse transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and the effect of cysteine mutations of integrase on its interactions with reverse transcriptase J Virol, 2004; 78(10): 5045-55.
Wilkinson, T.A, Tan, W. and Chow, S.A.   Safe delivery of therapeutic genes into specific chromosomal sites using engineered retroviral integrase, Gene Ther. Regulation, 2004; 2(4): 369-387.
Woodward CL, Wang Y, Dixon WJ, Htun H, Chow SA   Subcellular localization of feline immunodeficiency virus integrase and mapping of its karyophilic determinant J Virol , 2003; 77(8): 4516-27.
Holmes-Son ML, Chow SA   Correct integration mediated by integrase-LexA fusion proteins incorporated into HIV-1 Mol Ther, 2002; 5(4): 360-70.
Holmes-Son ML, Appa RS, Chow SA   Molecular genetics and target site specificity of retroviral integration Adv Genet , 2001; 43: 33-69.
Appa RS, Shin C-G, Lee P, Chow SA   Role of the nonspecific DNA-binding region and a-helices within the core domain of retroviral integrase in selecting target DNA sites for integration, J Biol Chem, 2001; 276: 45848-45855.
Holmes-Son ML, Chow SA   Integrase-lexA fusion proteins incorporated into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 that contains a catalytically inactive integrase gene are functional to mediate integration J Virol , 2000; 74(24): 11548-56.
Zhu K, Cordeiro ML, Atienza J, Robinson WE, Chow SA   Irreversible inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase by dicaffeoylquinic acids J Virol , 1999; 73(4): 3309-16.
Wong BC, Chiu SK, Chow SA   The role of negative superhelicity and length of homology in the formation of paranemic joints promoted by RecA protein J Biol Chem, 1998; 273(20): 12120-7.
Shibagaki Y, Chow SA   Central core domain of retroviral integrase is responsible for target site selection, J Biol Chem, 1997; 272: 8361-8369.
Shibagaki Y, Holmes ML, Appa RS, Chow SA   Characterization of feline immunodeficiency virus integrase and analysis of functional domains Virology , 1997; 230(1): 1-10.
Scottoline BP, Chow S, Ellison V, Brown PO   Disruption of the terminal base pairs of retroviral DNA during integration Genes Dev , 1997; 11(3): 371-82.
Chow SA   In vitro assays for activities of retroviral integrase, Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology, 1997; 12: 306-317.
Robinson WE, Cordeiro M, Abdel-Malek S, Jia Q, Chow SA, Reinecke MG, Mitchell WM   Dicaffeoylquinic acid inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus integrase: inhibition of the core catalytic domain of human immunodeficiency virus integrase Mol Pharmacol , 1996; 50(4): 846-55.
Goulaouic H, Chow SA   Directed integration of viral DNA mediated by fusion proteins consisting of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and Escherichia coli LexA protein J Virol , 1996; 70(1): 37-46.
Robinson Jr. WE, Reinicke MG, Abdel-Malek S, Jia Q, Chow SA   Inhibitors of HIV-1 replication that inhibit HIV integrase, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1996; 93: 6326-6331.
Chow SA, Brown PO   Substrate features important for recognition and catalysis by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase identified by using novel DNA substrates J Virol , 1994; 68(6): 3896-907.
Chow SA, Chiu SK, Wong BC   RecA protein-promoted homologous pairing and strand exchange between intact and partially single-stranded duplex DNA J Mol Biol , 1992; 223(1): 79-93.
Chow SA, Vincent KA, Ellison V, Brown PO   Reversal of integration and DNA splicing mediated by integrase of human immunodeficiency virus, Science, 1992; 255: 723-726.